Fragments of Sudan - Securing a Divided Nation
The Sudanese Crisis has attracted global attention and urgency due to its profound impact on Africa. The African Union is committed to facilitate stable, peaceful negotiations to address the crisis' multiple challenges, including ethnic conflicts, economic instability, human rights violations, and governance issues, necessitating diplomatic solutions.
This prolonged conflict, marked by ethnic tensions, economic instability, and governance struggles, originated with the 2003 Darfur humanitarian crisis. Despite the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, South Sudan's independence in 2011 intensified regional instability. Clashes among rebel groups, particularly in Darfur, Blue Nile, and South Kordofan, have led to mass displacement, human rights abuses, and limited services. Economic hardships, inflation, and unemployment worsened the situation. International entities like the African Union and the United Nations have been mediating.
In 2018, nationwide protests triggered coups, ousting President Omar al-Bashir, whose government had been in power for 30 years. This was followed by a transitional government, the Transitional Military Council (TMC), composed of military and civilian representatives. The TMC however faced instability, inflation, and security concerns. Another coup in late 2021 by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan deposed the TMC and saw the Sudanese military in power once again. In an attempt to balance power dynamics with other actors, the Sudanese military-drafted an agreement with the Rapid Support Force (RSF), a paramilitary organisation that had previously supported the Sudanese government during the War in Darfur. The RSF, accused of crimes against humanity, has been embroiled in various other conflicts, such as in Libya and Yemen.
In early 2023, the RSF escalated the conflict by attacking Sudanese military positions, causing civilian casualties, infrastructure destruction, and a continent-wide refugee crisis of unprecedented heights. This ongoing RSF-Sudanese military conflict has left Sudan fractured and destabilised.
Understanding social, economic, political, and ethnic dynamics is crucial for finding effective solutions. Committee sessions offer the chance to represent stakeholders, like Sudan's government, rebel groups, neighbouring nations, and international organisations. Balancing national, regional, and global interests while fostering dialogue will be essential for viable resolutions. The African Union will prioritise the Sudanese government's, rebel groups, and neighbours' interests to promote stability. Delegates' resolutions should contribute to a more harmonious future for Sudan and the region.